Higher western bean cutworm feeding may lead to mycotoxins

Tag: 梧桐夜雨 南京夜网

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Although western bean cutworm (WBC) flight counts have been relatively stable compared to last year, several growers and extension educators have sent in pictures of western bean cutworm infestations and damage in corn. Obviously it is much too late to do much at this point, as the larvae are either still protected, or more likely, have dropped to the ground to overwinter.  However, the holes and damage that remain could lead to secondary infestations from mold and fungi, and some of these infestations may also be a source for mycotoxins, including fumonisins and deoxynivalenol, AKA vomitoxin.In some cases, damaged kernels will likely be colonized by opportunistic molds, meaning that the mold-causing fungi are just there because they gain easy access to the grain. However, in other cases, damaged ears may be colonized by fungi such as Fusarium, Gibberella and Aspergillus that produce harmful mycotoxins. Some molds that are associated with mycotoxins are easy to detect based on the color of the damaged areas. For instance reddish or pinkish molds are often cause by Gibberella zeae, a fungus know to be associated with several toxins, including vomitoxin. On the other hand, greenish molds may be caused by Aspergillus, which is known to be associated with aflatoxins, but not all green molds are caused by Aspergillus. The same can be said for whitish mold growth, some, but not all are caused by mycotoxin-producing fungi.So, since it is not always easy to tell which mold is associated with which fungus or which fungus produces mycotoxins, the safe thing to do is to avoid feeding moldy grain to livestock. Mycotoxins are harmful to animals – some animals are more sensitive to vomitoxin while others are more sensitive to fumonisins, but it is quite possible that multiple toxins are present in those damaged ears. Mycotoxin-producing fungi are also opportunistic. If you have damaged ears and moldy grain, get it tested for mycotoxins before feeding to livestock, and if you absolutely have to use moldy grain, make sure it does not make up more than the recommended limit for the toxin detected and the animal being fed. This link provides more information on ear molds and mycotoxin contamination:http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/t01_pageview2/Mycotoxin_Sampling_Laboratories_.htmlast_img read more


Tag: 梧桐夜雨 南京夜网

first_imgThe weathering of wood is very different from decay; weathering is breakdown at the surface only. While there are a number of forces that contribute to weathering of wood—moisture, temperature, abrasion by wind-borne particles, air pollution—it’s the narrow band of high-energy ultraviolet light in sunlight that is the dominant force (see Image #1).What bare wood looks like when cut or milledImage #2 is an electron micrograph of unweathered wood. You can see how robust the cells appear; we are primarily looking at the lignin in the wood, the chief component of wood that gives it its structure. Wood treatments, particularly primer paints, are formulated to bond and bind to unweathered wood.What weathered wood looks like after UV degradationImage #3 is an electron micrograph of weathered wood, wood exposed to sunlight for a month. You can see how the wood cell structure has deteriorated significantly. Remember this is a surface phenomenon that does not affect the structural integrity of the wood. But this surface degradation has significant impact on how well treatments, such as paint primer, bond and bind to the surface of the weathered wood.A paint primer testResearchers and paint manufacturers have tested the effect of UV degradation on the bonding and binding of finishes to bare wood. It’s dramatic; just a couple or so days of direct sunlight can degrade the wood enough to reduce the quality of the primer bond to the bare wood. Image #4 shows testing done by Sam Williams of the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL). The test boards show that the longer the exposure of bare wood to sunlight, the poorer the bond and shorter the service life of the paint. His conclusion: “Smooth-planed lumber [that is, siding and trim] must be painted promptly during construction.”Lesson learnedPrime or initially treat bare exterior wood as soon as possible. Ideally, go with factory-primed exterior wood cladding components. It doesn’t make sense to pay good money for exterior wood components and not take the time, right away, to protect them from the sun. And in areas of the country with the highest UV index (mostly the southwest and locations at altitude), it’s even more important to get that sunscreen on your naked wood!For more detailed information on the weathering of wood see these resources from the Forest Products Lab:1. Weathering and Protection of Wood2. Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, Chapter 73. Don’t Get (Sun)Burnedlast_img read more


Tag: 梧桐夜雨 南京夜网

first_imgShooting a live event? Cover all your bases, and maximize your workflow with these practical approaches to film or video production.Shooting events can be stressful, especially when you’re not entirely sure how much coverage you need to capture.  How many wide shots of a wedding do you need? How many close-ups of the tablecloth are necessary? There’s a lot going on — and only one of you to capture it all.If you’re gearing up for a shoot, and this is stressing you out, have no fear: I’ve created a go-to guide that can help you capture all the coverage you need to make a solid edit.Keep in mind that amount of action per event will really determine how much you shoot. If it’s a pretty active event, you might want to repeat the shot list every 15 to 40 minutes. If it’s a basic event and things are slow, I recommend filming per location or every few hours. That being said, use your judgment and try to gauge the fluctuation of how things are flowing.Every shoot is different. The big thing you want to capture is the feeling of the event. Ask yourself How does it feel? What is energy? What looks interesting and unique?Wide/ Establishing ShotsThese are great for entering and exiting a scene. I recommend getting at least 1-5 solid wides.Wide/MediumTry to get a good 3-4 wide/medium shots in the can. An example of this type of coverage would be people interacting or participating in an activity.Close Ups/MomentsIn my eyes, expressions and reactions are important elements to capture at an event. My rule of thumb is usually 15-25 reactions per scene, setup, or location.Close Up/Macro Detail ShotsDETAILS! Details are essential for making a great event or recap video. You want to film the small details that the organizers fought so hard to bring together. I usually gather 15 per scene, setup, or location.For each of these categories, be sure to capture the right moment before moving on to the next shot. There’s no point in gathering all of this coverage if none of it works in the edit.The main thing is to follow your gut and use this guide as an outline. All shoots are different, and so is the coverage you’ll get. This method has helped me immensely, and now I just rely on it as a rule of thumb when filming any sort of event or recap video.Looking for more filmmaking tutorials? Check out these articles.Check Out These 5 Super Simple Tips for Shooting Better FootageMake Dynamic Montages with This Easy Video Editing TechniqueUse Film Grain Overlays to Add a Cinematic Look to Your Footage5 Ways to Use a Gimbal to Capture Cinematic FootageImprove Your Footage by Adding Vignettes in Post-Productionlast_img read more