Planet Out of Bounds

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first_imgThere’s a small planetary object where it shouldn’t be.  New Scientist reported the discovery of a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) with a high inclination of 47° and a nearly circular orbit.  Astronomers can’t figure out how it got there.  It’s too far out to have been flung by Neptune into such a strange orbit.  They have nicknamed it Buffy, the “theory slayer.”Theories are fun, till data get in the way.  One planetary science professor years ago was heard to say that astronomers usually get stuck at some point in their models of solar system formation, and have to invoke some kind of miracle to continue on and wind up with the real worlds.(Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img


Tag: 全国龙凤信息论坛

first_imgThe men of muddle earth are wondering what to do with their hobbit prisoners.  Elizabeth Culotta wrote in Science about the ongoing debates among paleoanthropologists about how to interpret the diminutive skeletons found in the Liang Bua cave of Flores in Indonesia, affectionately dubbed hobbits.1  After four years of study (10/27/2004, 06/06/2006, 08/21/2006, 10/11/2006), there is still no consensus on whether they were diseased modern humans or some evolutionary side branch of hominids from Africa.    Paleoanthropologists meeting in Columbus, Ohio earlier this month got their first views of the LB1 skeleton.  William Jungers of State University of New York at Stony Brook claimed the creature had a slow gait, due to abnormalities with its feet.  He believes the hobbit provides a window into the primitive bipedal foot of australopithecines.  For that to be true, Leslie Aiello of New York City countered, it would have had to remain unchanged for a long time.  “How it got there and managed to persist–that’s clearly a challenge to explain.”  Others said there is no evidence for a migration like that.  To invent such a story is clearly a case of “special pleading.”    In short, no consensus has emerged about these small humans.  “Given the wildly diverging opinions on the hobbit,” Culotta ended, ‘Somebody’s going to take a big fall here.’”  She was quoting paleoanthropologist C. Owen Lovejoy of Kent State University in Ohio.  Maybe the fall will become evident by fall (autumn, that is).  Another research team will be excavating the cave this summer.1.  Elizabeth Culotta, “When Hobbits (Slowly) Walked the Earth,” Science, 25 April 2008: Vol. 320. no. 5875, pp. 433-435, DOI: 10.1126/science.320.5875.433.Evolutionists would love to have another case of chimps becoming humans here.  The early hopes have not materialized.  Our prediction: the skeletons will be shown to be human.  Wait and see.  They’ll find a fingernail-sized cell phone or something.(Visited 15 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


Tag: 全国龙凤信息论坛

first_imgThe weathering of wood is very different from decay; weathering is breakdown at the surface only. While there are a number of forces that contribute to weathering of wood—moisture, temperature, abrasion by wind-borne particles, air pollution—it’s the narrow band of high-energy ultraviolet light in sunlight that is the dominant force (see Image #1).What bare wood looks like when cut or milledImage #2 is an electron micrograph of unweathered wood. You can see how robust the cells appear; we are primarily looking at the lignin in the wood, the chief component of wood that gives it its structure. Wood treatments, particularly primer paints, are formulated to bond and bind to unweathered wood.What weathered wood looks like after UV degradationImage #3 is an electron micrograph of weathered wood, wood exposed to sunlight for a month. You can see how the wood cell structure has deteriorated significantly. Remember this is a surface phenomenon that does not affect the structural integrity of the wood. But this surface degradation has significant impact on how well treatments, such as paint primer, bond and bind to the surface of the weathered wood.A paint primer testResearchers and paint manufacturers have tested the effect of UV degradation on the bonding and binding of finishes to bare wood. It’s dramatic; just a couple or so days of direct sunlight can degrade the wood enough to reduce the quality of the primer bond to the bare wood. Image #4 shows testing done by Sam Williams of the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL). The test boards show that the longer the exposure of bare wood to sunlight, the poorer the bond and shorter the service life of the paint. His conclusion: “Smooth-planed lumber [that is, siding and trim] must be painted promptly during construction.”Lesson learnedPrime or initially treat bare exterior wood as soon as possible. Ideally, go with factory-primed exterior wood cladding components. It doesn’t make sense to pay good money for exterior wood components and not take the time, right away, to protect them from the sun. And in areas of the country with the highest UV index (mostly the southwest and locations at altitude), it’s even more important to get that sunscreen on your naked wood!For more detailed information on the weathering of wood see these resources from the Forest Products Lab:1. Weathering and Protection of Wood2. Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, Chapter 73. Don’t Get (Sun)Burnedlast_img read more


Tag: 全国龙凤信息论坛

first_img(A trailer, debris and a smouldering fire was all that was left at the former site of the Sarnia blockade Thursday. APTN Photo) By Kenneth JacksonAPTN National NewsSarnia – When members of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation in Sarnia agreed to shut down their blockade of a CN Rail line Wednesday at midnight that was believed to be the end of it.But it’s not over.Saturday they will attempt to block traffic on the Blue Water Bridge that also serves as the US/Canada border access.And then they’re going to get strategic explains spokesman Ron Plain, who has been the face of the blockade almost from the beginning and as result is facing possible punishment from the Superior Court of Justice.“Now that the blockade is down there will be a Phase 2 and that will include roving blockades,” he said at his home in Sarnia Thursday.They intend to shut down access to selected factories here for up to days at a time in the area known as Chemical Valley.“In my vision of what can happen I’ll look at the research of a company, for example Imperial Oil. I will look globally at what Imperial Oil’s record is with Indigenous peoples, as well as their record of dealing with us here in Aamjiwnanng,” said Plain, as part of wide-ranging interview with APTN National News that will look at the intimate details of the nearly two-week blockade to be aired next week.He said he will use that research to determine how to proceed, but a site hasn’t been picked yet.“From that we will base a campaign against Imperial Oil saying this is what we want as we block you,” he said. “It may be a 12-hour blockade, a 24-hour blockade, 36-hour blockade.”That will be determined by an organizing committee that plans to meet soon and is expected to keep the city updated. Mayor Mike Bradley said he was aware of further action but was happy the blockade came to a peaceful conclusion, which was echoed by Sarnia police Chief Phil Nelson.The selected factory will also be notified in advance of any action said Plain.Plain said the blockade of a CN spur line was ended in a negotiated settlement with Sarnia police after an Ontario judge ordered it shut down Wednesday.Plain called it the first victory of the Idle No More movement.He said the blockade, which began Dec. 21, 2012, had proven its point and didn’t need to continue. Plain said they were already negotiating to have the blockade end on Saturday.The blockade was originally launched in support of hunger-striking Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence’s demand for a treaty meeting between Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Gov. Gen. David Johnston and First Nations leaders.Plain was found in contempt Wednesday of a court injunction ordering an end to the blockade. He was ordered by the court not to go near the site of the blockade unless it involved negotiating its end.Plain is scheduled to be in court Friday to learn what happens as a result of the comptempt of court order.“I have to go back to court tomorrow and find out whether anthing is going to come to me for being the spokesman for the campaign,” he said.The ending to the Aamjiwnaang blockade leaves only the Mi’kmaq from Listuguj First Nation still holding a rail blockade. The Mi’kmaq there have been blocking the railway at Pointe-a-la-Croix in Quebec since Dec. 28, 2012.More rail and highway blockades, however, are expected in the coming days and weeks.First Nations chiefs are planning to hold a national day of action on Jan. 16 which could see the beginning of indefinite blockades across the country.kjackson@aptn.ca@afixedaddresslast_img read more